Cerita-cerita tentang kuliah dan nota-nota kuliah

Artikel 1: 
Apakah teknik 5E?

    1. Read section of Dear Mr. Henshaw by Beverly Cleary where Leigh Botts wants to build a burglar alarm on his lunch box.
    2. How do you think Leigh might be able to build an alarm for his lunch box? ( He could use wires and a bell. I think he would also need a battery for power.)
  2. EXPLORATION (predicting, observing, communicating, inferring, constructing)
    1. Today we are going to continue our investigation of electricity.
    2. I am going to distribute to you a package of materials; using the wire, light bulb, and battery I want you to put them together to make the bulb light.
    3. As I am distributing the materials, take out a piece of paper and draw a setup which you think will light the bulb. This is the setup you will test when you get together with your group. Be very specific with your drawing.
    4. You may move into your group and share your diagram and ideas. After you have discussed this, you may begin to construct you setups to test them.
    5. Be sure to note on your paper whether your setup worked or not. If your group did not have any working setups, continue to investigate and build one that does work. Draw a diagram of the working model.
    6. I will walk around at this time asking questions of the students.
    7. Why did you decide to do it that way?
    8. Why do think that works/ does not work?
    9. Can you design another setup that is different and will still work?
    10. Is there anything special that you should know about the light bulb to make it light?
    1. Have students share successes and failures by diagramming them on the board.
    2. See if other groups have setups that are not listed.
    3. Have students explain why they work.
    4. Discuss the similarities of each model that worked.
    5. Introduce the term "circuit" and define as the pathway from the energy source through the wire to the bulb and back to the battery.
    6. Stress that it is a complete pathway without any breaks in it. Trace some of the successful diagrams to emphasize this.
    7. Identify this as a simple circuit and label the parts (energy source, pathway, appliance).
    8. Examine the diagrams of those that did not work and try to have the students determine why they didn’t work. Ask questions as follows.
    9. Is part of the circuit missing? (No)
    10. Are they all connected? (Yes)
    11. Then why isn’t the bulb lit? (It is not in the correct order.)
    12. How can we fix that? (Take suggestions from students and try them.)
    13. Let’s take a look inside a light bulb and see if we can understand this a little better.
    14. Show transparency of light bulb paying particular attention to the filament.
    15. Point out that the filament is connected at the bottom and the side, therefore the wires must be touching those two areas.
    16. Why does the wire have to touch these areas? (It has to touch here to form a complete circuit for the energy to move through.)
    17. Explain that a complete circuit that delivers energy to an appliance is called a closed circuit; use the analogy of a closed circle or an athletic track.
    18. What would happen if I erased part of this circle? (It would be incomplete and we couldn’t travel all the way around it.)
    19. Yes, the same thing would happen in an electrical circuit; the energy could not reach the appliance.
    20. This is called an open circuit.
    21. To help you remember this you might think:
    22. A Closed circuit is Complete. (Both start with C.)
    23. An Open circuit is Incomplete. (Both start with a vowel.)
    24. Briefly tell them this is how a switch works, but we will study them later this week.
    25. Show the students a flashlight, turning it off and on.
    26. I am sure all of you have used a flashlight, but did you ever stop to think how it works?
  4. ELABORATION (predicting, forming hypotheses, communicating)
    1. I would like you to work with your group to determine how it works and be able to explain it using the terms we have just learned.
    2. Distribute flashlights and allow groups to investigate how it works.
    3. Each group should select a spokesperson to explain their group’s theory as to how the flashlight works.
    4. Identify groups with correct explanation.
    1. Distribute circuit worksheet and have students complete independently.
    2. Put students back into groups and allow them to test the answers on their worksheet using the materials.
    3. Ask if there are any unclear areas or questions which may have developed.

  Sumber: Internet

Artikel 2: 

Plus, Minus, Interesting

Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Decision

                 © iStockphoto/malerapas
PMI stands for 'Plus/Minus/Interesting'. It is a valuable improvement to the 'weighing pros and cons' technique used for centuries.
PMI is an important Decision Making tool: The mind tools used so far in this section have focused on selecting a course of action from a range of options. Before you move straight to action on this course of action, it is important to check that it is going to improve  the situation (it may actually be best to do nothing!) PMI is a useful tool for doing this.

How to Use the Tool

Draw up three columns on a piece of paper. Head them 'Plus', 'Minus', and 'Interesting'.
In the column underneath 'Plus', write down all the positive results of taking the action. Underneath 'Minus' write down all the negative effects. In the 'Interesting' column write down the implications and possible outcomes of taking the action, whether positive, negative, or uncertain.
By this stage it may already be obvious whether or not you should implement the decision. If it is not, consider each of the points you have written down and assign a positive or negative score to it appropriately. The scores you assign may be quite subjective.
Once you have done this, add up the score. A strongly positive score shows that an action should be taken, a strongly negative score that it should be avoided.


A young professional is deciding where to live. Her question is 'Should she move to the big city?'
She draws up the PMI table below:
Plus Minus Interesting
More going on (+5) Have to sell house (-6) Easier to find new job? (+1)
Easier to see friends (+5) More pollution (-3) Meet more people? (+2)
Easier to get places (+3) Less space (-3) More difficult to get own work done? (-4)

No countryside (-2)

More difficult to get to work? (-4)

She scores the table as 13 (Plus) – 18 (Minus) – 1 (Interesting) = – 6
For her, the comforts of a settled rural existence outweigh the call of the 'bright lights' – it would be much better for her to live outside the city, but close enough to travel in if necessary.
Sumber: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_05.htm

Artikel 3:

KWL reading method

KWL is a reading strategy formed from its letters:

Survey! Question! Read! Recite! Review!

KWL is intended to be an exercise for a study group or class
that can guide you in reading and understanding a text.
You can adapt it to working alone, but discussions definitely help.
It is composed of only three stages that reflect
a worksheet of three columns with the three letters:
What we
what we
ant to know
what we

K stands for Know
This first stage may surprise you:
Think first about, then list, what you know about the topic before reading!
This advanced organizer provides you with a background to the new material,
building a scaffold to support it.
Think of it as a pre-reading inventory.
    • Brainstorm!
      Before looking at the text, think of keywords, terms, or phrases about the topic, either in your class or a study group.
    • Record these in the K column of your chart until you cannot think of more.
    • Engage your group in a discussion about what you wrote in the K column.
    • Organize the entries into general categories.
W stands for Will or Want
The second stage is to list a series of questions of what you want to know more of the subject, based upon what you listed in K.
    • Preview the text�s table of contents, headings, pictures, charts etc.
      Discuss what you want to learn
    • List some thoughts on what you want, or expect to learn, generally or specifically.
      Think in terms of what you will learn, or what do you want to learn about this.
    • Turn all sentences into questions before writing them down.
      They will help you focus your attention during reading.
    • List the questions by importance.
L stands for Learned
The final stage is to answer your questions,
as well as to list what new information you have learned.
Either while reading or after you have finished.
    • List out what you learn as you read,
      either by section, or after the whole work, whichever is comfortable for you.
    • Check it against the W column, what you wanted to learn
    • Create symbols to indicate main ideas, surprising ideas, questionable ideas, and those you don�t understand!
Expand this exercise beyond K W L:
Add an H!
Stands for HOW you can learn more.
    • Pose new questions about the topic
    • How can I learn more or answer questions not answered in my worksheet
      These include other sources of information, including:  organizations, experts, tutors, websites, librarians, etc.
5 W's and an H
Another reading strategy is to answer the questions that form the basis of good journalism:

Who What When Where Why and How

    • Who are the main characters?
    • What does the author say happened?
    • Where did the action occur?
    • When did it happen or what is the span of time?
    • Why did this happen?
    • How did it happen?
I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
I send them over land and sea,
I send them east and west;
But after they have worked for me,
I give them all a rest.

 Sumber: http://www.studygs.net/texred3.htm

Artikel 4:

Sumber: http://www.google.com.my/imgres?q=6+thinking+hats&hl